Plant Pathol J > Volume 38(4); 2022 > Article
The Plant Pathology Journal 2022;38(4):287-295.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5423/PPJ.OA.01.2022.0011    Published online August 1, 2022.
Identification of Endogenous Genes for Normalizing Titer Variation of Citrus Tristeza Virus in Aphids at Different Post-acquisition Feeding Times
Hongsu Wang1,2, Qi Chen1,3, Luqin Liu1,3, Yan Zhou1,3, Huanhuan Wang1,3, Zhongan Li1,3, Jinxiang Liu1,3
1Citrus Research Institute, Southwest University, Chongqing 400712, China
2Sichuan Provincial Key Laboratory of Quality and Innovation Research of Chinese Materia Medica, Sichuan Academy of Chinese Medicine Sciences, Chengdu 610041, China
3National Citrus Engineering Research Center, Chongqing 400712, China
Correspondence:  Jinxiang Liu, Tel: +86-23-68349017, Fax: +86-23-68349592, 
Email: Ljinxiang@126.com, Liujinxiang@cric.cn
Received: 28 January 2022   • Revised: 27 May 2022   • Accepted: 6 June 2022
Abstract
Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is efficiently transmitted in a semi-persistent manner by the brown citrus aphid (Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy)). Currently, the most sensitive method for detecting plant viruses in insect vectors is reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). In this study, the elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1α) gene and acidic p0 ribosomal protein (RPAP0) gene were confirmed to be suitable reference genes for RT-qPCR normalization in viruliferous T. citricida aphids using the geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper tools. Then the relative CTV titer in aphids (T. citricida) at different post-acquisition feeding times on healthy plants was quantified by RT-qPCR using EF-1α and RPAP0 as reference genes. The relative CTV titer retained in the aphids gradually decreased with increasing feeding time. During the first 0.5 h of feeding time on healthy plants, the remaining CTV titer in aphids showed about 80% rapid loss for the highly transmissible isolate CT11A and 40% loss for the poorly transmissible isolate CTLJ. The relative CTV titer in aphids during more than 12 h post-acquisition times for CT11A was significantly lower than at the other feeding times, which is similar to the trend found for CTLJ. To our knowledge, this is the first report about the relative titer variation of CTV remaining in T. citricida at different post-acquisition feeding times on healthy plants.
Key Words: citrus tristeza virus, relative titer variation, Toxoptera citricida
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