Plant Pathol J > Volume 28(2); 2012 > Article
The Plant Pathology Journal 2012;28(2):207-211.
DOI:    Published online June 30, 2012.
Mode of Action of Streptomycin Resistance in the Citrus Canker Pathogen (Xanthomonas smithii subsp. citri) in Jeju Island
Jae Wook Hyun, Hyo Jung Kim, Pyoung Ho Yi, Rok Yeon Hwang, Eun Woo Park
It has been known that streptomycin resistance in bacteria can occur as a results of chromosomal mutation or through gene acquisition or both. Chromosomal mutations for resistances are point mutations in the rpsL gene, which alter ribosomal protein S12. Acquired resistance has occurred when an SmR plasmid carrying transposon Tn5393 with tandem strA-strB gene is transferred by conjugation. A total of 686 isolates of Xanthomonas smithii subsp. citri causal agent of citrus canker disease were collected from 26 citrus orchards in Jeju Island in 2003 and 2004 seasons. Forty-nine of 111 isolates from streptomycin non-sprayed orchards in 2003 season were resistant to streptomycin. Of 107 isolates from orchards sprayed one time with streptomycin, 58 isolates were resistant, and 166 of 221 isolates from orchards sprayed two times with streptomycin were resistant. In 12 orchards sprayed three or more times with streptomycin, 219 of 247 isolates were resistant to streptomycin. Twenty-five isolates of X. smithii subsp. citri were surveyed to identify the mechanisms of streptomycin resistance in this study. Twenty-one of these 25 isolates were resistant to streptomycin, and it was proven by PCR assay that 18 of the 21 streptomycin resistant isolates have the strB gene. In sixteen of the 21 streptomycin resistant isolates, it was occurred a point mutation altered codon lysine (AAG)-41 of rpsL gene to arginine (AGG). The streptomycin-sensitive isolates easily acquired the resistance by mixed culture with resistant isolates. The strB gene was amplified from the isolates that acquired the resistance by mixed culture, and one isolate of them was also point-mutated in codon 41 of rpsL gene to be resistant. In this study, most of the streptomycin-resistant isolates of X. smithii sub sp. citri in Jeju island expressed the resistance by both chromosomal point mutation and gene acquisition, and the resistance was easily acquired through conjugation by culture mixed with streptomycin resistant and sensitive strains.
Key Words: Citrus canker, rpsL gene, strB gene, streptomycin-resistant isolate, Xanthomonas smithii sub sp. citri

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